The brain overall is motivated by various combinations of fear and longing.
The human brain fears time more than space, due to the perceived realization of its ultimate decay over time.
Fear and longing transform earth time into psychological time.
The perception of time over long periods, such as the lifespan of an observer, may give
the impression of the slowing or speeding up of time at various intervals and rates.
Observing the progress of time appears to slow it down, while avoiding time gives the impression of speeding it up.
Certain time intervals are more easily estimated than others, especially very short intervals of split seconds. The preference in humans for perceiving short intervals of time seems to be influenced by the synchronization of the senses.
The expansion of time occurs as a result of experiencing the full awareness of events, which is caused by a stabilized synchronization of rhythms throughout the body, or by extreme pain.
The contraction of time is perceived when an increase in information content is accompanied by a corresponding decrease in information processing, caused by an alteration in the signal to noise ratio of the nervous system.
Human perception depends upon the ability to differentiate one event from another, and relies to a significant degree on the ratio of signal information to noise. A signal is information from which coherent patterns are perceived, and noise refers to information in which no discernible pattern is perceived.
The ratio of signal to noise information in humans acts as a reference point from which the nervous system is regulated in a variety of ways, and which varies from individual to individual.
The contraction of time may result in the perception of the momentary absence of time, the experience of ‘timelessness’, which is caused when an extreme increase in sensory information is accompanied by little or no processing of the information, or when there is a high level of noise within the nervous system.
In addition, time contraction resolves long sequences of time into short ones, such as the perception of an art style which can be readily perceived, although it may have taken a generation to develop.
Sensory deprivation and hypothermia drastically reduce the body temperature of an organism, which slows the time rates of the vital functions, causing hallucinatory effects within the brain.
The internal structure and patterning of sleep produces a change in various levels of activity of the body, including the fluctuation of brain waves and body position, as well as the slowing or suspension of various functions such as respiration, circulation, and sensory and motor actions.
In addition, humans dream at rates which vary from individual to individual, although on the average, humans experience about 25 to 50 dreams for every 8-hour period of sleep.
Both the internal structure and patterning of sleep show similar patterns of fluctuation within different species.