Biological Time

The biosphere is a global environment in which self-replicating systems cooperate and compete for survival.

The amount of time in which biological organisms have existed on the Earth is about 3.5 billion years.

Biological time refers to the synchronization of living systems with their environments.

Synchronization of the internal timing of living systems, in cooperation with the time rates of change in the external environment, forms the basis for adaptation of biological organisms.

A living organism is a hierarchical system with genes controlling the timing of the activity of other genes, and genes interacting as regulators in the formation of chemical reactions which bring about dramatic changes throughout the system.

Survival and orientation rates, interval clocks, circadian rhythms, metabolic functions, growth development, and aging all have cyclical behavioral patterns which are synchronized with astronomical and geophysical cycles.

Cyclical time functions have the advantage of allowing an organism to prepare for a predictable change in the environment. A plant may shift its entire metabolism just prior to sunrise or sunset in order to acquire favorable conditions for each change in state. Bees make use of these repetitive cycles by knowing the time of day when flowers will offer their pollen and nectar. Insects can prepare to emerge from the pupae at daybreak which has survival advantages over other times of the day or night.

Biological organisms, at every order of magnitude, reveal persisting and often precise cycles of activity, from unicellular organisms as small as a neuron, to complex organisms operating on the planetary scale. These cyclical patterns range from short periods of oscillation, to long cycles of development.

Survival rates of organisms occur in proportion to their rates of vibration over time. The rate of vibration of small organisms occurs more frequently per unit of time than large organisms. Small creatures breathe faster than large creatures, their cardiac and respiratory systems oscillate more rapidly, they consume more food in relation to their body weight, reproduce faster, and have shorter lifespans.

There are orientation rates which give animals true orientation ability, and enable humans to wake up at a predetermined hour without the aid of clocks.

Interval clocks operate in the regulation of biological activities, such as the egg-laying of birds or the blossoming of flowers, which are determined by chemical reactions triggered by a combination of internal and external control functions.

There are interval clocks which regulate periods of animal gestation, ripening of grain, migrations of birds and fish, and fertile periods of female animals.

Circadian rhythms are oscillating functions within an organism that operate in cycles of approximately 24 hours, and which are controlled by external factors such as light- dark periods, seasonal, and lunar cycles.

Plants and animals can accurately measure the length of the day and night to within a few minutes, distinguishing between the shorter days of winter, and the longer days of summer, which provides necessary information on the progress of the seasons.

Marine organisms are influenced by lunar developmental cycles, including tidal periods, and the shifting of ocean currents.

The metabolic rate of an organism is the rate of increase or decrease of the chemical processes operating within the system, and is dependent upon temperature, pressure, and density.

The metabolic rate of an organism releases energy for all vital processes, and yields information about the thermodynamic properties of the overall system which leads to aging.

There is a biological law of continuity which states that at no time since the evolution of bacteria has the earth’s total environment changed for one moment in such a manner that the entire biosphere would be eliminated.