Hours, minutes, and seconds are derived from atomic time frequencies which are determined by measuring the rate at which elementary particles travel within an atom.
An atom is comprised of a nucleus, and one or more electrons.
The nucleus of an atom consists of a number of protons, and one or more neutrons.
A proton is a positively charged particle, and a neutron is a neutral particle which contains both a positive and negative charge. An electron is a negatively charged particle.
Electrons travel in successively descending orbits about the nucleus of an atom. The orbits correspond to various energy states which are caused by the radical transition from one orbit to the next.
Atomic particles oscillate at rates which are determined by nuclear and electromagnetic forces.
A single proton revolution inside the nucleus of an atom occurs within a period of about 10 to-the-minus 23 seconds.
The rate of oscillation of an electron is 124 to-the 18th cycles per second, which is
increased to about 2.7 to-the 15th cycles per second when the electron makes the transition from the first energy state to the second, and then by various amounts in passing through each successive state.
An electron travels about the nucleus of an atom on the order of 10 to-the-minus 16 times, with a typical lifespan of about 10 to-the-minus 19 seconds.
The descent of an electron begins with maximum acceleration, and ends with maximum deceleration, reaching its maximum velocity at mid-trajectory.
A photon is a discrete quantity of light energy which is radiated by an atom as the electron drops from a higher to a lower energy state. A photon has energy and momentum, but no mass. The smallest duration of a photon traveling across the nucleus of a hydrogen atom is about 10 to-the-minus 24 seconds.
More than one-hundred subatomic particles, or quarks, are contained in differing amounts within the nuclei of various atoms. Subatomic particles travel at rates which are determined by their mass, spin, and charged field properties, and the electric and nuclear forces which cause them.
Certain subatomic particles such as muons and mesons have a lifespan of less than a billionth of a second before being transformed into other particles of matter.